Journal «Angiology and Vascular Surgery» • 

2019 • VOLUME 25 • №3

Adrenergic mechanisms of regulation of pulmonary microvessels tonicity and endothelial permeability

Evlakhov V.I., Poyasov I.Z.

Laboratory of Physiology of Visceral Systems named after K.M. Bykov, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Saint Petersburg, Russia

The review contains the data on adrenergic mechanisms of regulation of pulmonary microvessels tonicity and endothelial permeability. On smooth muscle cells of pulmonary vessels there are postsynaptic α1A-, α1B-, α1D- and α2A-, α2B-, α2C-adrenoreceptors whose activation by norepinephrine induces vasoconstriction. Excitation of β1- and β2-subtypes of adrenoreceptors leads to vasodilatation, Activation of α1-2- and β1-3-adrenoreceptors of the endothelium contributes to enhancement of nitric oxide synthesis. The resulting reaction of pulmonary microvessels in response to administration of catecholamines appears be determined by interaction of adrenergic mechanisms of regulation of tonicity of smooth muscle cells and synthesis of nitric oxide by the endothelium. Constrictor and dilator reactions of pulmonary venous vessels in response to activation of α- and β-adrenoreceptors, respectively, are more pronounced than in pulmonary arteries and make a significant contribution to the shifts of pulmonary vascular resistance. Excitation of α2- and β2-adrenoreceptors of endothelial cells of microvessels of the lungs contributes to a decrease in their permeability. In order to find out the role of adrenergic mechanisms in shifts of the capillary filtration coefficient in simulating various pathology of pulmonary circulation, it is necessary to carry out integral studies that would make it possible to evaluate alterations in macro- and microhaemodynamics of the lungs.

KEY WORDS: adrenoreceptors, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins, endothelial permeability, capillary filtration coefficient.

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