Journal «Angiology and Vascular Surgery» • 

2021 • VOLUME 27 • №1

Comparative analysis of safety of carotid endarterectomy performed in acutest and acute periods of ischaemic stroke

Zakirzhanov N.R.1,3, Komarov R.N.3, Khalilov I.G.1,2, Bayazova N.I.1, Evseeva V.V.2

1) Department of Vascular Surgery, Municipal Clinical Hospital №7 of the Public Health Ministry of the Republic of Tatarstan,
2) Chair of Cardiovascular and Endovascular Surgery, Kazan State Medical University of the RF Ministry of Public Health, Kazan,
3) Department of Faculty Surgery №1, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University of the RF Ministry of Public Health, Moscow, Russia

Surgical revascularization of the carotid basin in the acutest period of ischaemic stroke, i.e., within 72 hours, will make it possible to prevent the development of recurrent stroke by removing an embologenically dangerous atherosclerotic plaque of the symptomatic carotid artery and to improve cerebral blood supply, having eliminated haemodynamic stenosis of the carotid artery. However, the problem of safety of carotid endarterectomy in patients during the acutest period of ischaemic stroke still remains debatable.

Objective. The purpose of this study was to comparatively analyse safety of eversion carotid endarterectomy performed in the acutest (0-72 hours) and acute (4-14 days) periods of minor ischaemic stroke.

Patients and methods. Between January 2015 and December 2019, specialists of the Department of Vascular Surgery of Municipal Clinical Hospital №7 of Kazan performed a total of 80 eversion carotid reconstructions in the period of minor ischaemic stroke within 14 days. The patients were divided into 2 groups depending on the terms of performing carotid endarterectomy. The first group comprised 32 (40.0%) patients operated on in the acutest period of ischaemic stroke, i.e., within 72 hours from the onset of first symptoms of neurological deficit. The second group included 48 (60.0%) patients subjected to carotid endarterectomy within 4 to 14 days from the onset of first signs of neurological deficit.

Results. According to the obtained findings, haemorrhagic transformation in the early postoperative period occured in 2 Group Two patients, with one lethal outcome on POD 3. Cerebral ischaemia increased in one patient of each group without enlargement of the ischaemic zone according to brain computed tomography, with residual neurological deficit in Group I in remote period (Rankin scale score 1) and complete restoration in Group II (Rankin scale score 0). Recurrent minor ischaemic stroke on POD 1 developed in Group II with formation of a new lacunar region of ischaemia of the brain in the operated carotid basin and was verified by the findings of cerebral MRI with persisting neurological deficit for 6 months (Rankin scale score 2). The comparative assessment of severity of stroke on the day of operation and at discharge, as well as that of neurological symptomatology during the 1st and 6th months of follow up in both groups proved positive. No events of acute coronary syndrome, recurrent strokes or lethal outcomes were observed during the follow-up period.

Conclusion. According to the findings of our study, patients with acute cerebral circulation impairment caused by embologenically dangerous lesions of internal carotid arteries should be operated on within the first 72 hours, if there are no accompanying changes requiring time for correction thereof.

KEY WORDS: carotid endarterectomy, acutest period, ischaemic stroke, carotid artery stenosis, carotid artery atherosclerosis, remote results.

P. 106

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