Journal «Angiology and Vascular Surgery» • 

2021 • VOLUME 27 • №1

Remote results of infrainguinal bypass graft procedures for critical lower limb ischaemia

Tishchenko I.S.1, Zolkin V.N.1, Tarabrin A.S.2, Maksimov N.V.1, Korotkov I.N.1, Barzaeva M.A.1

1) Department of Vascular Surgery, Municipal Clinical Hospital named after D.D. Pletnev,
2) Department of Roentgen-Endovascular Diagnosis and Treatment, Municipal Clinical Hospital №29 named after N.E. Bauman, Moscow, Russia

Objective. The study was aimed at assessing the remote results of infrainguinal reconstructions in patients with critical lower limb ischaemia depending upon the bypass graft material used.

Patients and methods. Analysed herein are the results of 237 infrainguinal bypass procedures performed over a 9-year period from January 1st, 2010 to December 31st, 2018. The patients were divided into three groups depending on the level of the distal anastomosis. Each group was then subdivided into subgroups based on the bypass graft material. Group One comprised 40 patients having endured femoral-proximal-popliteal bypass grafting. Group Two was composed of 77 patients after femoral-distal-popliteal bypass graft operations. Group Three included 120 patients after femorotibial bypass graft procedures. The comparative analysis was carried out in the first group between autovenous and synthetic grafts, in the second group – between autovenous, synthetic grafts and xenografts, and in the third group – between autovenous, composite grafts and xenografts.

Results. The primary patency rates at 1, 3, and 5 years in the first group amounted to 92, 88, and 73%, in the second group to 68, 60, 45% and in the third group – to 58, 49, and 43%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year limb salvage rates in the first group were 100, 100, and 87%, in the second group – 90, 85, 73%; and in the third group – 90, 80, and 79%, respectively. Statistically significant differences were observed only when comparing the femoral-proximal and tibial grafts (p=0.039). Patients’ survival at 1, 3, and 5 years in all groups turned out to be approximately similar, amounting in the first group to 92, 84, and 61%, in the second group to 96, 91, 71%, and in the third group to 88, 77, and 69%, respectively (p=0.87). In the first group, there were no significant differences between autovenous and synthetic grafts for any of the parameters studied. In the second group, the synthetic grafts (20%) were significantly inferior by the 5-year patency to autovenous grafts (65%) and xenografts (56%), as well as by the limb salvage rate to autovenous grafts (47 versus 84%). In the third group, the 5-year patency was the worst for the subgroup of composite grafts (15%), with the patency of xenografts being slightly inferior to that of autovenous grafts (33 vs. 55%).

Conclusions. In patients presenting with critical ischaemia and requiring infrainguinal bypass grafting, as an alternative to an autovein if unavailable may serve synthetic prostheses when shunting to the proximal portion of the popliteal artery, or xenografts when shunting to the distal portion of the popliteal artery or tibial arteries. Despite worse patency, with their help it is possible to achieve regression of critical ischaemia and an acceptable limb salvage rate, which is comparable to the results of autovenous grafts.

KEY WORDS: peripheral artery disease, critical lower limb ischaemia, infrainguinal reconstructions, xenografts, tibial shunts.

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